He also devised a number of games, including an early version of what today is known as Scrabble. He appears to have invented — or at least certainly popularized — the "doublet" see word ladder , a form of brain-teaser that is still popular today, changing one word into another by altering one letter at a time, each successive change always resulting in a genuine word.
Other items include a rule for finding the day of the week for any date; a means for justifying right margins on a typewriter; a steering device for a velociam a type of tricycle ; new systems of parliamentary representation;  fairer elimination rules for tennis tournaments; a new sort of postal money order; rules for reckoning postage; rules for a win in betting; rules for dividing a number by various divisors; a cardboard scale for the Senior Common Room at Christ Church which, held next to a glass, ensured the right amount of liqueur for the price paid; a double-sided adhesive strip to fasten envelopes or mount things in books; a device for helping a bedridden invalid to read from a book placed sideways; and at least two ciphers for cryptography.
Within the academic discipline of mathematics, Dodgson worked primarily in the fields of geometry , linear and matrix algebra , mathematical logic , and recreational mathematics , producing nearly a dozen books under his real name. Dodgson also developed new ideas in linear algebra e.
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His occupation as Mathematical Lecturer at Christ Church gave him some financial security. His mathematical work attracted renewed interest in the late 20th century. Martin Gardner's book on logic machines and diagrams and William Warren Bartley's posthumous publication of the second part of Dodgson's symbolic logic book have sparked a reevaluation of Dodgson's contributions to symbolic logic. The algorithm known as Dodgson condensation is closely related to the Schur complement and the Desnanot-Jacobi identity.
The discovery in the s of additional ciphers that Dodgson had constructed, in addition to his "Memoria Technica", showed that he had employed sophisticated mathematical ideas in their creation.
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Dodgson wrote and received as many as 98, letters, according to a special letter register which he devised. He documented his advice about how to write more satisfying letters in a missive entitled "Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing". Dodgson's existence remained little changed over the last twenty years of his life, despite his growing wealth and fame. He continued to teach at Christ Church until and remained in residence there until his death.
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The two volumes of his last novel, Sylvie and Bruno , were published in and , but the intricacy of this work was apparently not appreciated by contemporary readers; it achieved nothing like the success of the Alice books, with disappointing reviews and sales of only 13, copies. The only known occasion on which he travelled abroad was a trip to Russia in as an ecclesiastic, together with the Reverend Henry Liddon.
He recounts the travel in his "Russian Journal", which was first commercially published in Dodgson died of pneumonia following influenza on 14 January at his sisters' home, "The Chestnuts", in Guildford in the county of Surrey. He was two weeks away from turning 66 years old. His funeral was held at the nearby St Mary's Church. Some late twentieth-century biographers have suggested that Dodgson's interest in children had an erotic element, including Morton N. Cohen, in particular, speculates that Dodgson's "sexual energies sought unconventional outlets", and further writes:.
We cannot know to what extent sexual urges lay behind Charles's preference for drawing and photographing children in the nude. He contended the preference was entirely aesthetic. He probably felt more than he dared acknowledge, even to himself. Cohen goes on to note that Dodgson "apparently convinced many of his friends that his attachment to the nude female child form was free of any eroticism ", but adds that "later generations look beneath the surface" p.
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He argues that Dodgson may have wanted to marry the year-old Alice Liddell, and that this was the cause of the unexplained "break" with the family in June ,  an event for which other explanations are offered. Biographers Derek Hudson and Roger Lancelyn Green stop short of identifying Dodgson as a paedophile Green also edited Dodgson's diaries and papers , but they concur that he had a passion for small female children and next to no interest in the adult world.
Catherine Robson refers to Carroll as "the Victorian era's most famous or infamous girl lover". Several other writers and scholars have challenged the evidential basis for Cohen's and others' views about Dodgson's sexual interests. Lebailly has endeavoured to set Dodgson's child photography within the "Victorian Child Cult", which perceived child nudity as essentially an expression of innocence.
Lebailly claims that studies of child nudes were mainstream and fashionable in Dodgson's time, and that most photographers made them as a matter of course, including Oscar Gustave Rejlander and Julia Margaret Cameron. Lebailly continues that child nudes even appeared on Victorian Christmas cards , implying a very different social and aesthetic assessment of such material.
Lebailly concludes that it has been an error of Dodgson's biographers to view his child-photography with 20th- or 21st-century eyes, and to have presented it as some form of personal idiosyncrasy, when it was in fact a response to a prevalent aesthetic and philosophical movement of the time.
Karoline Leach 's reappraisal of Dodgson focused in particular on his controversial sexuality. She argues that the allegations of paedophilia rose initially from a misunderstanding of Victorian morals, as well as the mistaken idea — fostered by Dodgson's various biographers — that he had no interest in adult women. She termed the traditional image of Dodgson "the Carroll Myth". She drew attention to the large amounts of evidence in his diaries and letters that he was also keenly interested in adult women, married and single, and enjoyed several relationships with them that would have been considered scandalous by the social standards of his time.
She also pointed to the fact that many of those whom he described as "child-friends" were girls in their late teens and even twenties.
Similarly, Leach points to a biography by Langford Reed as the source of the dubious claim that many of Carroll's female friendships ended when the girls reached the age of In addition to the biographical works that have discussed Dodgson's sexuality, there are modern artistic interpretations of his life and work that do so as well — in particular, Dennis Potter in his play Alice and his screenplay for the motion picture Dreamchild , and Robert Wilson in his film Alice.
Dodgson had been groomed for the ordained ministry in the Church of England from a very early age and was expected to be ordained within four years of obtaining his master's degree, as a condition of his residency at Christ Church. He delayed the process for some time but was eventually ordained as a deacon on 22 December But when the time came a year later to be ordained as a priest, Dodgson appealed to the dean for permission not to proceed.
This was against college rules and, initially, Dean Liddell told him that he would have to consult the college ruling body, which would almost certainly have resulted in his being expelled. For unknown reasons, Liddell changed his mind overnight and permitted Dodgson to remain at the college in defiance of the rules. There is currently no conclusive evidence about why Dodgson rejected the priesthood. Some have suggested that his stammer made him reluctant to take the step, because he was afraid of having to preach. But Dodgson did indeed preach in later life, even though not in priest's orders, so it seems unlikely that his impediment was a major factor affecting his choice.
He was interested in minority forms of Christianity he was an admirer of F. Maurice and "alternative" religions theosophy. At least four complete volumes and around seven pages of text are missing from Dodgson's 13 diaries. Most scholars assume that the diary material was removed by family members in the interests of preserving the family name, but this has not been proven. This was also the period of time when he composed his extensive love poetry, leading to speculation that the poems may have been autobiographical.
Many theories have been put forward to explain the missing material. A popular explanation for one missing page 27 June is that it might have been torn out to conceal a proposal of marriage on that day by Dodgson to the year-old Alice Liddell. However, there has never been any evidence to suggest that this was so, and a paper offers some evidence to the contrary which was discovered by Karoline Leach in the Dodgson family archive in This paper is known as the "cut pages in diary document", and was compiled by various members of Carroll's family after his death.
Part of it may have been written at the time when the pages were destroyed, though this is unclear.
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The document offers a brief summary of two diary pages that are missing, including the one for 27 June The summary for this page states that Mrs. Liddell told Dodgson that there was gossip circulating about him and the Liddell family's governess , as well as about his relationship with "Ina", presumably Alice's older sister Lorina Liddell. The "break" with the Liddell family that occurred soon after was presumably in response to this gossip.
What is deemed most crucial and surprising is that the document seems to imply that Dodgson's break with the family was not connected with Alice at all; until a primary source is discovered, the events of 27 June will remain in doubt. In his diary for , Dodgson recorded experiencing his first episode of migraine with aura, describing very accurately the process of "moving fortifications" that are a manifestation of the aura stage of the syndrome.
Another form of migraine aura called Alice in Wonderland syndrome has been named after Dodgson's little heroine because its manifestation can resemble the sudden size-changes in the book. It is also known as micropsia and macropsia , a brain condition affecting the way that objects are perceived by the mind. For example, an afflicted person may look at a larger object such as a basketball and perceive it as if it were the size of a golf ball.
Some authors have suggested that Dodgson may have suffered from this type of aura and used it as an inspiration in his work, but there is no evidence that he did. Dodgson also suffered two attacks in which he lost consciousness. He was diagnosed by a Dr. Morshead, Dr. Brooks, and Dr. Stedman, and they believed the attack and a consequent attack to be an "epileptiform" seizure initially thought to be fainting, but Brooks changed his mind. Some have concluded from this that he was a lifetime sufferer of this condition, but there is no evidence of this in his diaries beyond the diagnosis of the two attacks already mentioned.
Carroll had at least one incident in which he suffered full loss of consciousness and awoke with a bloody nose, which he recorded in his diary and noted that the episode left him not feeling himself for "quite sometime afterward". This attack was diagnosed as possibly "epileptiform" and Carroll himself later wrote of his "seizures" in the same diary. Most of the standard diagnostic tests of today were not available in the nineteenth century.
Her conclusion, quoted in Jenny Woolf's The Mystery of Lewis Carroll , is that Dodgson very likely had migraine, and may have had epilepsy, but she emphasises that she would have considerable doubt about making a diagnosis of epilepsy without further information. There are societies in many parts of the world  dedicated to the enjoyment and promotion of his works and the investigation of his life. In , his great-nephew unveiled a memorial stone to him in Poets' Corner , Westminster Abbey. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Analysis Of The Book ' Go Ask Alice ' Essay
For other people named Charles Dodgson, see Charles Dodgson disambiguation. English writer, logician, Anglican deacon and photographer. The Reverend. Author illustrator poet mathematician photographer teacher. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. And Reason? Biography portal Children's literature portal. Retrieved 22 October The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
Retrieved 8 March New York: St. Martin's Press. Wakeling, Edward ed. Rediscovered Lewis Carroll Puzzles. New York City: Dover Publications.